Monthly Archives: November 2014



Latex is a really versatile product that has been sustainably harvested and used for hundreds of years. Today, both natural and synthetic latex is commonly used for bedding – such as your pillow – and also for range of household and personal items, including gloves, balloons, dummies, rubber bands, condoms, and clothing.

Natural latex products are made from a milky fluid excreted by trees; it’s found in about 10 per cent of all flowering plants, serving as a defense against wood-boring insects. It is not, as is commonly thought, a sap.

While there are over 20,000 plant species that can produce latex, 14 per cent of tropical plants create it, compared to just six per cent of temperate plant species.

To harvest the latex liquid, the bark of the tree is partially removed and funneled into a small vessel attached to the trunk of the tree.

Generally, because the tree from which the latex is harvested is kept alive, the production of latex is a fairly sustainable process. However, with 93 per cent of global rubber production being in developing countries in tropical areas, some producers have more sustainable methods than others.

There are products on the market that showcase leading examples of natural latex production. There’s a world first in the field – the 100% GOLS-certified organic and carbon neutral certified latex from Sri Lanka that Sleep Made To Measure uses, that we’ve mentioned before here. And Etiko were recently recognised with a Green Lifestyle Award for highly commended fashion product for their rubber thongs. Both of these products support the local communities where they are made, and are of the highest quality – yet easily affordable for the average Australian too.

It is also possible to make latex synthetically from petroleum, oil, and acetylene; but the use of these materials for the synthetic production process is not at all sustainable, and can even cause allergies in some people. The benefit with natural latex is that it’s naturally antibacterial and antifungal – an important consideration when most of the population develops allergic reactions to dust mites that commonly live in our synthetic pillows. And of course with the GOLS-certified organic Sleep Made To Measure method, no chemicals at all are used in the growing and tapping process, so the final product is completely chemical-free (and even compostable)!

It is worth noting that there’s a small percentage of the population that are allergic to natural latex. These people need to bear in mind that more often than not, synthetic latex emits harmful VOCs over it’s lifetime, and so it can be problematic for your health – especially as a pillow, as you would be sleeping on this material and breathing in the VOCs all night.

If your pillow really is made from natural latex (not the synthetic kind) you can rest assured that it is most likely ok for you to have in your eco-home. But for real peace of mind, as with just about any product, it’s best to find out before you buy new if it has been ethically, sustainably produced.

Henry Sapiecha



How Poisonous, How Harmful?


Brugmansia suaveolens.


Datura/Brugmansia plants usually have an unpleasant taste so accidental poisoning from direct ingestion of plant material is unusual. Most poisoning results from the consumption of a tea made from the seeds either for its alleged medicinal benefits or for its hallucinogenic effects.

A number of symptoms have been reported and not all are present in every case. Twenty-nine sources have been examined, both scientific papers reporting on specific cases and ‘herbals’ going back to Dioscorides.


The overwhelming majority say confusion, delirium and hallucinations are the principal effects with drowsiness, sleep or coma generally following. Dilation of the pupils is such a common effect it gets mentioned in passing in some reports.

Agitation and convulsions requiring the use of restraints or sedatives are reported in around a third of the sources, a similar proportion give death as the outcome of Datura poisoning.

Only a few sources mention the muscle weakness which was supposed to make Datura a useful murder weapon by rendering the victim helpless and memory loss, supposed to help whores get away with robbing their clients, is also a given in a minority of the sources.

datura flower on plant image

It was believed to have been favoured by professional killers because the victims rapidly lose the wish, or ability, to move and quietly go off to sleep. Note that this runs contrary to most of the actual case reports which talk of agitation and excitement.

brugmansiasuaveolens image

In Mexico, a drink called Ololiuqui or Piule is made by chopping up Datura seeds and soaking them in pulque, the fermented juice of agaves. In the Mexican state of Oaxaca, there was once a group called the ‘Puliero Band’ who would travel to the more remote villages and offer their services, in return for payment, resolving disputes or solving crimes. They would use the Piule to produce intoxication in all the people involved in a case and claim that, under its influence, people were compelled to tell the truth.

On the Indian subcontinent and Russia it was known as “knockout drops”, which thieves and prostitutes used to knock out their victims. So well known was this effect that Christoval Acosta, who was in India in 1578, wrote that Hindu whores gave it to their patrons because ‘these mundane ladies are such mistresses and adepts in the use of the seed that they gave it in doses corresponding to as many hours as they wish their poor victims to be unconscious or transported’.

It may be that the hallucinations induced led the poor fools who woke up penniless to believe they had spent their money on exciting ‘extras’.

DATURA FLOWERS APRICOT COLOUR image www.pythonjungle (5)


Henry Sapiecha


Gardener ‘died after brushing past poisonous plant’ in millionaire’s garden


Nathan Greenaway, 33, died of multiple organ failure after touching the deadly purple flowering plant, known as Devil’s Helmet and Monkshood on £4m estate

Nathan Greenaway, right, fell ill after handling the deadly flower known as Devil's Helmet, left image

Nathan Greenaway, right, fell ill after handling the deadly flower known as Devil’s Helmet, left Photo: INS

A gardener collapsed and died after apparently handling a highly-poisonous plant on the £4 million estate of a wealthy businessman, a coroner has heard.

Nathan Greenaway fell ill after brushing against the deadly flower aconitum, also known as Devil’s Helmet and Monkshood, which was growing in the grounds of Millcourt House, owned by retired venture capitalist Christopher Ogilvie Thompson and his wife Katherine.

A pre-inquest hearing was told that Mr Greenaway, 33, died in hospital from multiple organ failure.

The gardener was rushed to hospital but despite frantic analysis of his blood, doctors were unable to work out what was wrong with him and he died five days later.

aconitum_napellus_belladonna foliage image

The coroner heard that it was only after Mr Greenaway’s father, Richard, carried out hours of tireless research in an effort to find out what happened, that the link with the aconitum plant became apparent.

North Hampshire coroner Andrew Bradley heard from histopathologist Asmat Mustajab, who concluded it was “more likely than not” that Mr Greenaway died after coming into contact with the deadly purple flowering plant.

Aconitum lycoctonum, wolfsbane poisonous plant image

He was employed by South African-born Mr Ogilvie Thompson and his wife to maintain the manicured gardens of their sprawling estate in exclusive Upper Froyle near Alton, Hants.

The inquest was told that the gardener was thought to have handled the highly-toxic plant, which is a member of the buttercup family of ranunculaceae, while working on the estate. He died in hospital on September 7 this year.

Poisioning from the aconitum plant can occur if it is ingested or handled without gloves. In severe cases the poisoning causes vomiting, dizziness and diarrhoea followed by palpitations, paralysis of the heart and airways, and death.

Mr Ogilvie Thompson is a consultant for high-end technology companies and formerly worked as venture manager for operations at Element Six Ventures, a fund focusing on early and growth phase investments in material science companies.

Aconitum is also known as monkshood and devil’s helmet due to its resemblance to a drawn hood, and is known by some as wolfsbane, because its poison is so toxic that it was once used to kill wolves.

The attractive plant has also been responsible for several human deaths, including that of Canadian actor Andre Noble, who died on a camping trip in 2004 after accidentally consuming the plant.

In 2009 Brit Lakhvir Singh, dubbed the ‘Curry Killer’, poisoned her lover Lakhvinder Cheema with a curry dish laced with Indian aconite, from the same plant family.

Barrister Tim Sharpe, representing the Ogilvie Thompsons, told the pre-inquest hearing in Basingstoke, Hants., that an expert on plant toxicology was needed to establish whether or not coming into contact with aconitum was the definitive reason for Mr Greenaway’s death.

Coroner Mr Bradley said that, while blood samples taken after Mr Greenaway’s death were still available for analysis, the sample taken at the time of his admission had since been destroyed.

Dr Maggie Bloom, representing the family of Mr Greenaway, who lived in nearby Aldershot with his wife, said: “There’s even a note in the medical records where it says all samples are to be retained.”

The hearing was also told that the plant’s deadly toxin works so quickly that it would have caused huge damage to Mr Greenaway’s internal organs within hours and would have been out of his blood system altogether within a day.

How Poisonous, How Harmful?

The principal alkaloids are aconite and aconitine. Of these aconitine is thought to be the key toxin. Ingestion of even a small amount results in severe gastrointestinal upset but it is the effect on the heart, where it causes slowing of the heart rate, which is often the cause of death.

The gardener’s widow, Tegan, and his parents, Richard and Marian, attended the hearing with other members of the family.

Mr and Mrs Ogilvie Thompson’s Grade II-listed Georgian house lies at the heart of a sprawling complex of outbuildings and staff cottages at the end of a long gravel drive, next to the River Wey.

At the back there is a veranda with seating room for at least a dozen guests, overlooking a manicured square lawn featuring two black sculptures of sheep.

On Thursday, gardeners employed by the Ogilvie Thompsons could be seen tending to a vast vegetable patch to one side of the house, which also has several outhouses for its army of staff, a chauffeur’s cottage and even its own cavernous barn complete with ornate weather vane.

A member of staff, who asked not to be named, described Mr Greenaway as “a really nice guy who was really good to work with.”

Answering the door under an elaborate, colonnaded porch, Mrs Ogilvie Thompson said the couple did not wish to comment on the inquest or the circumstances leading to the gardener’s death.

Henry Sapiecha